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Communication Systems

Title: Video-on-Demand Systems for IPTV.

Team: Prof. Carlos Marcelo Pedroso.
Abstract: IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a multimedia service for delivering TV/video/audio/data over an IP (Internet Protocol) based network. The VoD (Video on Demand) service allows users to access videos stored on a server, with interaction that enables fast-forwarding, rewinding, and pausing the video. Unicast transmission for such systems will become prohibitive due to the high volume of traffic generated. Therefore, studying new approaches for implementing VoD systems becomes important, including hybrid P2P systems, content distribution algorithms, and multicast technologies.

Title: Multimedia Transmission for Video-on-Demand Systems for IPTV.

Team: Prof. Carlos Marcelo Pedroso.
Abstract: Due to the high volume of traffic, IPTV systems will be required to implement multimedia transmission in the core of the network. For channels transmitted in broadcast, the available technology is adequate. However, considering VoD systems, new challenges arise for multicast implementation in order to reduce bandwidth requirements. The use of multicast with VoD impacts the quality of the service offered, resulting in a reduction in the level of user interaction. There is a desire to study new algorithms that overcome the limitations of current methods available.

Title: Application of Active Queue Management for Quality Improvement in Video Streaming over IP.

Team: Prof. Carlos Marcelo Pedroso.
Abstract: The traffic generated by IPTV systems exhibits bursty behavior due to the algorithms used for video encoding (codecs) having variable rate characteristics. The bursty traffic behavior can lead to temporary congestion situations with packet discards. It is known that in IPTV systems, a discard rate of 1% or more can result in significant degradation of Quality of Experience (QoE). In this project, algorithms for active queue management implemented in routers will be studied to reduce discard levels and improve QoE in the transmission of H.264/SVC or H.265 video.

Title: Quality Enhancement of Video Streaming over LTE.

Team: Prof. Carlos Marcelo Pedroso.
Abstract: One of the primary applications in use over LTE networks is video streaming. Resource allocation (frequency vs. time) in LTE is centrally performed by the base station (eNodeB). The objective of this project is to propose changes to resource scheduling algorithms to achieve improvements in video playback quality. The project utilizes the NS3 simulator for implementing new modules, conducting tests, and comparing performance. Proficiency in C/C++ programming is essential for this project.

Title: Machine-to-Machine Communication (M2M) over LTE Networks.

Team: Prof. Carlos Marcelo Pedroso.
Abstract: The 3GPP technology (Long Term Evolution, LTE) is considered a promising solution for integrating Smart Grid systems because it provides bandwidth and low latency. However, LTE was not originally designed for such applications, which typically involve the transmission of small messages over short periods of time. LTE resource scheduling uses a random access system to allow a mobile device to request resource allocation for transmission from the eNodeB. Since this type of application requires the transmission of small messages over short periods, random access has presented blocking problems (the network becomes available, but signaling channels become saturated). The objective of this project is to study the various methods available to address the blocking problem in random access for M2M communication in LTE and propose improvements.

Title: Data communication in multihomed systems.

Team: Prof. Eduardo Parente Ribeiro (coordinator), Prof. Carlos Marcelo Pedroso.
Abstract: Multihomed systems have more than one connection to the internet. This condition is initially used to increase resilience, but it can also provide an improvement in communication quality in terms of reducing latency or packet loss and increasing throughput. Some time ago, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) was standardized by the IETF as a new Layer 4 protocol, joining the currently used TCP and UDP protocols. This new protocol allows for the use of multistreams in multihomed systems. This project aims to study path selection methods to improve communication performance.

Title: Software Defined Networks - SDN.

Team: Prof. Eduardo Parente Ribeiro (coordinator).
Abstract: Software-defined networks constitute a new architecture paradigm aimed at achieving more flexibility and efficiency in providing communication services. It is based on decoupling the data plane and control plane, allowing the network to be directly reconfigurable and network functions to be virtualized. An important standard currently used is the OpenFlow protocol, which defines communication between the controller and network elements (switches). This project aims to evaluate the gains provided by this architecture as well as research innovations that allow for scalability and performance improvement of this approach.

Title: SeMOVER - Security for Networked Vehicle Mobility.

Team: Prof. Evelio M. García Fernández (coordinator), Prof. Alessandro Zimmer, Thiago Camargo Vieira, João Victor Bruneti Severino.
Abstract: This project aims to promote academic and scientific cooperation between the Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering at UFPR and the International Automotive Engineering Master's program at Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt (THI), Germany. The goal is to enhance pedestrian recognition robustness through a system composed of four short-range sensors with increased bandwidth, considering the micro-Doppler effect. Secondly, the project aims to evaluate the impact of radio propagation models on the performance of cooperative vehicular networks. These objectives will be achieved through the involvement of master's students in the CARISSMA research center at THI.
Keywords: VANETs, radio propagation, pedestrian detection, radar.

Title: Networked Control Systems (NCS).

Team: Prof. Eduardo Parente Ribeiro (coordinator), Diego Tefili.
Abstract: Networked Control Systems (NCS), digital control systems operating in closed-loop over a communication network, have gained significant advantages and flexibility with wired or wireless data communication. However, delays and packet losses can influence the stability and performance of these systems. This project aims to study these effects and propose and analyze solutions to minimize degradation and improve the operation of networked control systems in adverse situations.
Keywords: Feedback control, packet networks, wireless networks, control systems.

Title: Multipath communication in packet networks.

Team: Prof. Eduardo Parente Ribeiro (coordinator).
Abstract: Computers and mobile devices often have more than one internet connection, a condition known as multihome. The careful selection of the exit route for each destination can improve communication performance. The study proposes methods for intelligent and controlled multi-path communication without the need for route information exchange with routing protocols.

Title: Reconfigurable wireless communications systems based on discrete-time signal processing and with spectral recognition: New architectures, modulations, and spectral sensing.

Team: Prof. Luis Henrique Assumpção Lolis (coordinator).
Abstract: This project aims to explore new techniques that increase the capacity, flexibility, and robustness to noise/distortions of wireless communication systems. The work is divided into three axes: circuits and frequency conversion systems for RF transmitters and receivers based on n-path filters, mixer first, or other switched circuit techniques; study of the interaction between new modulations, error correction codes, and massive MIMO techniques for next-generation mobile communication; and study of new strategies in spectral sensing and modulation identification, focused on implementation, for cognitive radio systems. Concerning circuits and frequency conversion systems, it is expected to point out discrete-time architectures that are better suited for each type of scenario, namely: high transmission rate and bandwidth, high energy efficiency, high band and standard flexibility. Architectures presenting innovations in discrete-time signal processing, if created, could be implemented at the integrated circuit level through partner projects. Regarding the study of the interaction between new modulations, error correction codes, and massive MIMO techniques for next-generation mobile communication, it is expected to evaluate how different modulations and multiplexing techniques interact with a massive MIMO scenario regarding spectral, energy efficiency, and robustness in relation to noise/distortions. Modulations such as FBMC and non-optimal linear combiners are the starting points for this axis of the project. Concerning the study of new strategies in spectral sensing and modulation identification, the focus is on implementing metric calculators, neural networks, and new sensing/identification algorithms in digital circuits, either dedicated or general-purpose. Dedicated digital circuits are implemented in VHDL and initially validated in FPGA, for subsequent ASIC fabrication. Implementation on general-purpose processors is carried out through DSPs.
Keywords: N-PATH filters, FBMC, Spectrial Efficiency, FPGA, Neural Networks, MIMO.

Title: Physical Layer Security Applied to Hybrid Communication Systems.

Team: Prof. Ândrei Camponogara (coordinator).
Abstract: This research project aims to investigate the security of the physical layer (PLS - Physical Layer Security) of a broadband power line communication (PLC) system when malicious wireless communication (WLC) devices attempt to obtain private information exchanged between two PLC devices in the system. These WLC devices, when near the power line network of the PLC system and operating in the same frequency range as the system, can sense part of the electromagnetic field radiated by the PLC signal traveling through unshielded power cables. Note that these malicious devices may cooperate with each other to gain an advantage in decoding the obtained private information. Additionally, this research project investigates PLS for hybrid PLC/WLC systems when a malicious hybrid PLC/WLC device seeks to obtain the private information exchanged between two legitimate hybrid devices in the system. Note that the hybrid PLC/WLC system uses parallel combination of PLC and WLC channels for data communication. It is important to highlight that WLC and hybrid PLC/WLC devices are considered passive, meaning the transmitter is unaware of their respective channel states. Furthermore, to conduct these security investigations at the physical layer, a comprehensive measurement campaign is considered to obtain estimates of PLC channels, hybrid PLC-WLC (related to the PLC signal radiated in the air), and WLC channels. With these channel estimates, it is possible to conduct studies that closely reflect the practical behavior of PLC and hybrid PLC/WLC systems in terms of physical layer security. Following the studies with the measured data, this project envisages the development of strategies to ensure PLS in broadband PLC systems and narrowband and broadband hybrid PLC/WLC systems.
Keywords: Physical layer security, power line communication, wireless communication.

Microwaves and Applied Electromagnetism

Title: Theoretical-Experimental Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation and Antenna Characterization in Various Frequency Bands.

Team: Prof. Cesar Augusto Datora.
Abstract: The study of propagation and generation of electromagnetic waves is of fundamental importance in various areas of scientific research and technological application, notably including wireless mobile communications, satellite communications, radar, GPS devices and systems. Despite making room for optical communications guided by optical fiber, the microwave range gained new momentum in the 1990s with the global expansion of cellular mobile telephony and its unlimited possibilities. This project aims to study the effects of delay, attenuation by absorption, dispersion, and diffraction in the propagation of waves in material media, as well as the study and characterization of antennas, especially in the microwave range.

Title: High Performance Computational Electrodynamics.

Team: Prof. Wilson Artuzi, Prof. Marlio Bonfim.
Abstract: Computational Electrodynamics is the area of study that encompasses the numerical methods used to obtain solutions to the Maxwell's partial differential equations aimed at the interaction of electromagnetic waves with physical objects and the environment. In practice, the use of computational electrodynamics allows for detailed analysis of the behavior of radio frequency, microwave, and optical devices, aiding in the understanding of problems involving propagation and interference of electromagnetic waves. Although there is no universal numerical method that can be considered the most efficient in this extensive range of applications, the finite element method becomes a powerful analysis tool when the geometry is complex and the desired solution accuracy varies in the spatial domain of the problem. This research project consists of investigating and implementing efficient alternatives to increase the performance of the finite element method in the context of computational electrodynamics, addressing topics such as parallel processing, high-order basis functions, curvilinear elements, and nonlinear models.
Keywords: Computational Electrodynamics, Finite Element Method, Electromagnetic Waves.

Team: Prof. Horacio Tertuliano Filho.
Abstract: The design of a communication link requires not only technical skills from the designer but also, above all, knowledge of current national and international legislation (ITU recommendations and ANATEL recommendations among others), as well as all factors that may degrade its reliability. This research project aims to formulate the geometric, frequency, and power parameters that degrade the quality of communication links in commercial frequency bands and in large urban centers. Special emphasis is given to attenuations occurring in large urban centers. Both indoor and outdoor radio propagation aspects are taken into consideration, as well as the utilization of a specific model developed in a research laboratory to equalize these factors.
Keywords: Telecommunications, Electromagnetic Theory, Microwaves, Wave Propagation, Antennas, Adaptive Antennas, Cellular Systems Coverage, Applications/Services, Dedicated Components.

Title: CMOS RF Power Amplifiers and Integrated Transformers.

Team: Prof. Bernardo Leite (coordinator).
Abstract: The development of this project encompasses the design and simulation of power amplifiers integrated into RF CMOS technologies using dedicated software, as well as their experimental characterization. The designed power amplifiers aim to achieve high levels of linearity and efficiency, emphasizing reconfigurable and adaptive behaviors. Additionally, a significant portion of the work involves the design, electromagnetic simulation, and characterization of integrated transformers and derived structures such as power combiners.

Title: Analysis and Optimization of Electromagnetic Emissions in Electro-Electronic and Communication Systems

Team: Prof. Marlio Bonfim (coordinator).
Abstract: With the increasing development and expansion of electro-electronic systems and their utilization in various devices, issues such as electromagnetic interference become increasingly prevalent in everyday life. This is particularly significant in devices equipped with switched-mode converters, which are potential sources of electromagnetic emissions. These converters are present in almost all modern devices (electro-electronic and communication devices) as they enable high efficiency energy conversion. The optimization of the design of these devices must take into account aspects of emission and susceptibility to electromagnetic interference, ensuring reliability in their operation and that of other devices in their vicinity. This research aims to optimize the layout and component placement in a circuit, develop new topologies that enable low electromagnetic radiation emissions, and reduce susceptibility to external interference.

Título: Highly Efficient Transmitters for Wireless Communication Systems.

Team: Prof. Eduardo Gonçalves de Lima (coordinator).
Abstract: This research project focuses on the two most relevant themes for the design of transmitters for modern wireless communication systems: the search for new transmitter architectures capable of maintaining high energy efficiency across a wide range of output power, and the linearization of transmitters to exploit their operation in the high energy efficiency range while meeting stringent linearity requirements.

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